Clear Manual Ip Address Entries From A Mac

I can not get 'manual' IP setup - it never takes, and I know what I need to do on the router, the different MAC address for wired, etc. I end up getting a really strange IP always router should assign but the Xbox ends up getting something like, even after I setup the manual IP address for wired. The ARP cache acts as a library of mostly dynamic ARP entries. These are usually made when IP addresses are resolved from a hostname and then into a MAC address. This process is what allows your system to properly communicate with an IP address.


ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels



OBJECT := { linkaddraddrlabelrouteruleneightunnelmaddrmroutemonitor }

OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] -s[tatistics] -r[esolve] -f[amily] { inetinet6ipxdnetlink } -o[neline] }

ip link setDEVICE { updownarp { onoff }
{ onoff }
{ onoff }
{ onoff }
{ onoff }
NUM [ macLLADDR ] [ vlanVLANID [ qosVLAN-QOS ] ] [ rateTXRATE ] }

ip link show [ DEVICE ]

ip addr { adddel } IFADDRdevSTRING

ip addr { showflush } [ devSTRING ] [ scopeSCOPE-ID ] [ toPREFIX ] [ FLAG-LIST ][ labelPATTERN ]

IFADDR := PREFIXADDRpeerPREFIX [ broadcastADDR ] [ anycastADDR ] [ labelSTRING ] [ scopeSCOPE-ID ]

SCOPE-ID := [ hostlinkglobalNUMBER ]


FLAG := [ permanentdynamicsecondaryprimarytentativedeprecated ]

ip addrlabel { adddel } prefix PREFIX [ devDEV ] [ labelNUMBER ]

ip addrlabel { listflush }

ip route { listflush } SELECTOR

ip route getADDRESS [ fromADDRESSiifSTRING ] [ oifSTRING ] [ tosTOS ]

ip route { adddelchangeappendreplacemonitor } ROUTE

SELECTOR := [ rootPREFIX ] [ matchPREFIX ] [ exactPREFIX ] [ tableTABLE_ID ] [protoRTPROTO ] [ typeTYPE ] [ scopeSCOPE ]


NODE_SPEC := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tosTOS ] [ tableTABLE_ID ] [ protoRTPROTO ] [ scopeSCOPE ] [ metricMETRIC ]


NH := [ viaADDRESS ] [ devSTRING ] [ weightNUMBER ] NHFLAGS

OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtuNUMBER ] [ advmssNUMBER ] [ rttTIME ] [ rttvarTIME ] [windowNUMBER ] [ cwndNUMBER ] [ initcwndNUMBER ] [ ssthreshREALM ] [ realmsREALM ] [rto_minTIME ] [ initrwndNUMBER ]

TYPE := [ unicastlocalbroadcastmulticastthrowunreachableprohibitblackholenat ]

TABLE_ID := [ localmaindefaultallNUMBER ]

SCOPE := [ hostlinkglobalNUMBER ]

FLAGS := [ equalize ]

NHFLAGS := [ onlinkpervasive ]

RTPROTO := [ kernelbootstaticNUMBER ]

ip rule [ listadddelflush ] SELECTOR ACTION

SELECTOR := [ fromPREFIX ] [ toPREFIX ] [ tosTOS ] [ fwmarkFWMARK[/MASK] ] [ devSTRING ] [ prefNUMBER ]

ACTION := [ tableTABLE_ID ] [ natADDRESS ] [ prohibitrejectunreachable ] [ realms[SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

TABLE_ID := [ localmaindefaultNUMBER ]

ip neigh { adddelchangereplace } { ADDR [ lladdrLLADDR ] [ nud { permanentnoarpstalereachable } ] proxyADDR } [ devDEV ]

ip neigh { showflush } [ toPREFIX ] [ devDEV ] [ nudSTATE ]

ip tunnel { addchangedelshowprl } [ NAME ]
[ modeMODE ] [ remoteADDR ] [ localADDR ]
[ [io]seq ] [ [io]keyKEY ] [ [io]csum ] ]
[ encaplimitELIM ] [ ttlTTL ]
[ tosTOS ] [ flowlabelFLOWLABEL ]
[ prl-defaultADDR ] [ prl-nodefaultADDR ] [ prl-deleteADDR ]
[ [no]pmtudisc ] [ devPHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]

MODE := { ipipgresitisatapip6ip6ipip6any }


TOS := { NUMBERinherit }

ELIM := { none0.255 }

TTL := { 1.255inherit }


TIME := NUMBER[s ms us ns j]

ip maddr [ adddel ] MULTIADDRdevSTRING

ip maddr show [ devSTRING ]

ip mroute show [ PREFIX ] [ fromPREFIX ] [ iifDEVICE ]

ip monitor [ allLISTofOBJECTS ]


XFRM_OBJECT := { statepolicymonitor }

ip xfrm state { addupdate } ID [ XFRM_OPT ] [ modeMODE ]
[ reqidREQID ] [ seqSEQ ] [ replay-windowSIZE ]
[ flagFLAG-LIST ] [ encapENCAP ] [ selSELECTOR ]

ip xfrm state allocspiID [ modeMODE ] [ reqidREQID ] [ seqSEQ ] [ minSPImaxSPI ]

ip xfrm state { deleteget } ID

ip xfrm state { deletealllist } [ ID ] [ modeMODE ]
[ reqidREQID ] [ flagFLAG_LIST ]

ip xfrm state flush [ protoXFRM_PROTO ]

ip xfrm state count

ID := [ srcADDR ] [ dstADDR ] [ protoXFRM_PROTO ] [ spiSPI ]

XFRM_PROTO := [ espahcomproute2hao ]

MODE := [ transporttunnelrobeet ] (default=transport)


FLAG := [ noecndecap-dscpwildrecv ]

Lewis electron dot structure. ENCAP := ENCAP-TYPE SPORT DPORT OADDR

ENCAP-TYPE := espinudpespinudp-nonike



ALGO_TYPE := [ encauthcomp ]


UPSPEC := protoPROTO [[ sportPORT ] [ dportPORT ]
[ typeNUMBER ] [ codeNUMBER ]]


LIMIT := [ [time-softtime-hardtime-use-softtime-use-hard] SECONDS ] [ [byte-softbyte-hard]SIZE ]
[ [packet-softpacket-hard] COUNT ]

ip xfrm policy { addupdate } dirDIR SELECTOR [ indexINDEX ]
[ ptypePTYPE ] [ actionACTION ] [ priorityPRIORITY ]

ip xfrm policy { deleteget } dirDIR [ SELECTORindexINDEX ]
[ ptypePTYPE ]

ip xfrm policy { deletealllist } [ dirDIR ] [ SELECTOR ]
[ indexINDEX ] [ actionACTION ] [ priorityPRIORITY ]

ip xfrm policy flush [ ptypePTYPE ]

ip xfrm count

PTYPE := [ mainsub ] (default=main)

DIR := [ inoutfwd ]


UPSPEC := protoPROTO [ [ sportPORT ] [ dportPORT ]
[ typeNUMBER ] [ codeNUMBER ] ]

ACTION := [ allowblock ] (default=allow)


LIMIT := [ [time-softtime-hardtime-use-softtime-use-hard] SECONDS ] [ [byte-softbyte-hard]SIZE ]
[packet-softpacket-hard] NUMBER ]


TMPL := ID [ modeMODE ] [ reqidREQID ] [ levelLEVEL ]

ID := [ srcADDR ] [ dstADDR ] [ protoXFRM_PROTO ] [ spiSPI ]

XFRM_PROTO := [ espahcomproute2hao ]

MODE := [ transporttunnelbeet ] (default=transport)

LEVEL := [ requireduse ] (default=required)

ip xfrm monitor [ allLISTofOBJECTS ]


-V, -Version

print the version of the ip utility and exit.
-s, -stats, -statistics
output more information. If the option appears twice or more, the amount of information increases. As a rule, the information is statistics or some timevalues.
-f, -family
followed by protocol family identifier: inet, inet6 or link ,enforce the protocol family to use. If the option is not present, theprotocol family is guessed from other arguments. If the rest of the command line does not give enough information to guess the family, ip falls back tothe default one, usually inet or any. link is a special family identifier meaning that no networking protocol is involved.

shortcut for -family inet.


shortcut for -family inet6.


shortcut for -family link.

-o, -oneline
output each record on a single line, replacing line feeds with the ' character. This is convenient when you want to count records with wc(1)or to grep(1) the output.
-r, -resolve
use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead of host addresses.

Ip - Command Syntax



- network device.

- protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.
- label configuration for protocol address selection.
- ARP or NDISC cache entry.

- routing table entry.


- rule in routing policy database.

- multicast address.

- multicast routing cache entry.


- tunnel over IP.


- framework for IPsec protocol.

The names of all objects may be written in full or abbreviated form, f.e. address is abbreviated as addr or just a.


Specifies the action to perform on the object. The set of possible actions depends on the object type. As a rule, it is possible to add,delete and show (or list ) objects, but some objects do not allow all of these operations or have some additional commands. Thehelp command is available for all objects. It prints out a list of available commands and argument syntax conventions.

If no command is given, some default command is assumed. Usually it is list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed,help.

ip link - network device configuration

link is a network device and the corresponding commands display and change the state of devices.

ip link set - change device attributes

NAME specifies network device to operate on. When configuring SR-IOV Virtual Fuction (VF) devices, this keyword should specify the associatedPhysical Function (PF) device.
up and down
change the state of the device to UP or DOWN.
arp on or arp off
change the NOARP flag on the device.

Clear Manual Ip Address Entries From A Mac File

multicast on or multicast off
change the MULTICAST flag on the device.
dynamic on or dynamic off
change the DYNAMIC flag on the device.
change the name of the device. This operation is not recommended if the device is running or has some addresses already configured.
change the transmit queue length of the device.
change the MTU of the device.
change the station address of the interface.
change the link layer broadcast address or the peer address when the interface is POINTOPOINT.
move the device to the network namespace associated with the process PID.
give the device a symbolic name for easy reference.

specify a Virtual Function device to be configured. The associated PF device must be specified using the dev parameter.

macLLADDRESS - change the station address for the specified VF. The vf parameter must be specified.

vlanVLANID - change the assigned VLAN for the specified VF. When specified, all traffic sent from the VF will be tagged with the specifiedVLAN ID. Incoming traffic will be filtered for the specified VLAN ID, and will have all VLAN tags stripped before being passed to the VF. Setting thisparameter to 0 disables VLAN tagging and filtering. The vf parameter must be specified.

qosVLAN-QOS - assign VLAN QOS (priority) bits for the VLAN tag. When specified, all VLAN tags transmitted by the VF will include thespecified priority bits in the VLAN tag. If not specified, the value is assumed to be 0. Both the vf and vlan parameters must be specified.Setting both vlan and qos as 0 disables VLAN tagging and filtering for the VF.

rateTXRATE - change the allowed transmit bandwidth, in Mbps, for the specified VF. Setting this parameter to 0 disables rate limiting. Thevf parameter must be specified.

and '-' instead of the broadcast address. In this case, the broadcast address is derived bysetting/resetting the host bits of the interface prefix.

Each address may be tagged with a label string. In order to preserve compatibility with Linux-2.0 net aliases, this string must coincide with the name ofthe device or must be prefixed with the device name followed by colon.
the scope of the area where this address is valid. The available scopes are listed in file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes. Predefined scope valuesare:

global - the address is globally valid.

site - (IPv6 only) the address is site local, i.e. it is valid inside this site.

link - the address is link local, i.e. it is valid only on this device.

host - the address is valid only inside this host.

ip address delete - delete protocol address

name of device.
only list addresses with this scope.
only list addresses matching this prefix.
only list addresses with labels matching the PATTERN. PATTERN is a usual shell style pattern.
dynamic and permanent
(IPv6 only) only list addresses installed due to stateless address configuration or only list permanent (not dynamic) addresses.
(IPv6 only) only list addresses which did not pass duplicate address detection.
(IPv6 only) only list deprecated addresses.
primary and secondary
only list primary (or secondary) addresses.

ip address flush - flush protocol addresses

This command flushes the protocol addresses selected by some criteria.

This command has the same arguments as show. The difference is that it does not run when no arguments are given.

Warning: This command (and other flush commands described below) is pretty dangerous. If you make a mistake, it will not forgive it, but willcruelly purge all the addresses.

With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number of deleted addresses and the number of rounds made to flush theaddress list. If this option is given twice, ip addr flush also dumps all the deleted addresses in the format described in the previoussubsection.

ip addrlabel - protocol address label management.

IPv6 address label is used for address selection described in RFC 3484. Precedence is managed by userspace, and only label is stored in kernel.

ip addrlabel add - add an address label

the command deletes an address label entry in the kernel. Arguments: coincide with the arguments of ip addrlabel add but label is notrequired.

ip addrlabel list - list address labels

the command flushes the contents of address labels and it does not restore default settings.

ip neighbour - neighbour/arp tables management.

neighbour objects establish bindings between protocol addresses and link layer addresses for hosts sharing the same link. Neighbour entries areorganized into tables. The IPv4 neighbour table is known by another name - the ARP table.

The corresponding commands display neighbour bindings and their properties, add new neighbour entries and delete old ones.

ip neighbour add - add a new neighbour entry

ip neighbour change - change an existing entry

ip neighbour replace - add a new entry or change an existing one

permanent - the neighbour entry is valid forever and can be only be removed administratively.

noarp - the neighbour entry is valid. No attempts to validate this entry will be made but it can be removed when its lifetime expires.

reachable - the neighbour entry is valid until the reachability timeout expires.

stale - the neighbour entry is valid but suspicious. This option to ip neigh does not change the neighbour state if it was valid and theaddress is not changed by this command.

ip neighbour delete - delete a neighbour entry

This command invalidates a neighbour entry.

The arguments are the same as with ip neigh add, except that lladdr and nud are ignored.

Warning: Attempts to delete or manually change a noarp entry created by the kernel may result in unpredictable behaviour. Particularly, thekernel may try to resolve this address even on a NOARP interface or if the address is multicast or broadcast.

ip neighbour show - list neighbour entries

This commands displays neighbour tables.
the prefix selecting the neighbours to list.
only list the neighbours attached to this device.

only list neighbours which are not currently in use.

only list neighbour entries in this state. NUD_STATE takes values listed below or the special value all which means all states. This optionmay occur more than once. If this option is absent, ip lists all entries except for none and noarp.

ip neighbour flush - flush neighbour entries

This command flushes neighbour tables, selecting entries to flush by some criteria.

This command has the same arguments as show. The differences are that it does not run when no arguments are given, and that the default neighbourstates to be flushed do not include permanent and noarp.

With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number of deleted neighbours and the number of rounds made to flush theneighbour table. If the option is given twice, ip neigh flush also dumps all the deleted neighbours.

ip route - routing table management

Manipulate route entries in the kernel routing tables keep information about paths to other networked nodes.

Route types:

unicast - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered by the route prefix.

unreachable - these destinations are unreachable. Packets are discarded and the ICMP message host unreachable is generated. The local sendersget an EHOSTUNREACH error.

blackhole - these destinations are unreachable. Packets are discarded silently. The local senders get an EINVAL error.

prohibit - these destinations are unreachable. Packets are discarded and the ICMP message communication administratively prohibited isgenerated. The local senders get an EACCES error.

local - the destinations are assigned to this host. The packets are looped back and delivered locally.

broadcast - the destinations are broadcast addresses. The packets are sent as link broadcasts.

throw - a special control route used together with policy rules. If such a route is selected, lookup in this table is terminated pretending that noroute was found. Without policy routing it is equivalent to the absence of the route in the routing table. The packets are dropped and the ICMP message netunreachable is generated. The local senders get an ENETUNREACH error.

nat - a special NAT route. Destinations covered by the prefix are considered to be dummy (or external) addresses which require translation to real(or internal) ones before forwarding. The addresses to translate to are selected with the attribute Warning: Route NAT is no longer supported in Linux2.6.


anycast - not implemented the destinations are anycast addresses assigned to this host. They are mainly equivalent to local withone difference: such addresses are invalid when used as the source address of any packet.

multicast - a special type used for multicast routing. It is not present in normal routing tables.

Route tables: Linux-2.x can pack routes into several routing tables identified by a number in the range from 1 to 255 or by name from the file/etc/iproute2/rt_tables By default all normal routes are inserted into the main table (ID 254) and the kernel only uses this table whencalculating routes.

Actually, one other table always exists, which is invisible but even more important. It is the local table (ID 255). This table consists of routesfor local and broadcast addresses. The kernel maintains this table automatically and the administrator usually need not modify it or even look at it.

The multiple routing tables enter the game when policy routing is used.

ip route add - add new route

ip route change - change route

ip route replace - change or add new one

rttvarTIME(2.3.15+ only)
the initial RTT variance estimate. Values are specified as with rtt above.
rto_minTIME(2.6.23+ only)
the minimum TCP Retransmission TimeOut to use when communicating with this destination. Values are specified as with rtt above.
ssthreshNUMBER(2.3.15+ only)
an estimate for the initial slow start threshold.
cwndNUMBER(2.3.15+ only)
the clamp for congestion window. It is ignored if the lock flag is not used.
the maximum initial congestion window (cwnd) size in MSS of a TCP connection.
initrwndNUMBER(2.6.33+ only)
the initial receive window size for connections to this destination. Actual window size is this value multiplied by the MSS of the connection. The defaultvalue is zero, meaning to use Slow Start value.
advmssNUMBER(2.3.15+ only)
the MSS ('Maximal Segment Size') to advertise to these destinations when establishing TCP connections. If it is not given, Linux uses a default valuecalculated from the first hop device MTU. (If the path to these destination is asymmetric, this guess may be wrong.)
reorderingNUMBER(2.3.15+ only)
Maximal reordering on the path to this destination. If it is not given, Linux uses the value selected with sysctl variablenet/ipv4/tcp_reordering.
the nexthop of a multipath route. NEXTHOP is a complex value with its own syntax similar to the top level argument lists:

viaADDRESS - is the nexthop router.

devNAME - is the output device.

weightNUMBER - is a weight for this element of a multipath route reflecting its relative bandwidth or quality.

redirect - the route was installed due to an ICMP redirect.

kernel - the route was installed by the kernel during autoconfiguration.

boot - the route was installed during the bootup sequence. If a routing daemon starts, it will purge all of them.

static - the route was installed by the administrator to override dynamic routing. Routing daemon will respect them and, probably, even advertisethem to its peers.

ra - the route was installed by Router Discovery protocol.

The rest of the values are not reserved and the administrator is free to assign (or not to assign) protocol tags.

pretend that the nexthop is directly attached to this link, even if it does not match any interface prefix.

allow packet by packet randomization on multipath routes. Without this modifier, the route will be frozen to one selected nexthop, so that load splittingwill only occur on per-flow base. equalize only works if the kernel is patched.

ip route delete - delete route

ip route del has the same arguments as ip route add, but their semantics are a bit different.

Key values (to, tos, preference and table) select the route to delete. If optional attributes are present, ip verifiesthat they coincide with the attributes of the route to delete. If no route with the given key and attributes was found, ip route del fails.

ip route show - list routes

this command gets a single route to a destination and prints its contents exactly as the kernel sees it.
the destination address.
the source address.
the Type Of Service.
the device from which this packet is expected to arrive.
force the output device on which this packet will be routed.
if no source address (option from) was given, relookup the route with the source set to the preferred address received from the first lookup. Ifpolicy routing is used, it may be a different route.
Note that this operation is not equivalent to ip route show. show shows existing routes. get resolves them and creates new clones ifnecessary. Essentially, get is equivalent to sending a packet along this path. If the iif argument is not given, the kernel creates a route tooutput packets towards the requested destination. This is equivalent to pinging the destination with a subsequent ip route ls cache, however, no packetsare actually sent. With the iif argument, the kernel pretends that a packet arrived from this interface and searches for a path to forward thepacket.

ip rule - routing policy database management

Rules in the routing policy database control the route selection algorithm.

Classic routing algorithms used in the Internet make routing decisions based only on the destination address of packets (and in theory, but not in practice,on the TOS field).

In some circumstances we want to route packets differently depending not only on destination addresses, but also on other packet fields: source address, IPprotocol, transport protocol ports or even packet payload. This task is called 'policy routing'.

To solve this task, the conventional destination based routing table, ordered according to the longest match rule, is replaced with a 'routing policydatabase' (or RPDB), which selects routes by executing some set of rules.

Each policy routing rule consists of a selector and an action predicate. The RPDB is scanned in the order of increasing priority. The selectorof each rule is applied to {source address, destination address, incoming interface, tos, fwmark} and, if the selector matches the packet, the action isperformed. The action predicate may return with success. In this case, it will either give a route or failure indication and the RPDB lookup is terminated.Otherwise, the RPDB program continues on the next rule.

Semantically, natural action is to select the nexthop and the output device.

At startup time the kernel configures the default RPDB consisting of three rules:


Priority: 0, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table local (ID 255). The local table is a special routing table containing highpriority control routes for local and broadcast addresses.

Rule 0 is special. It cannot be deleted or overridden.

Priority: 32766, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table main (ID 254). The main table is the normal routing table containingall non-policy routes. This rule may be deleted and/or overridden with other ones by the administrator.


Priority: 32767, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table default (ID 253). The default table is empty. It is reserved for somepost-processing if no previous default rules selected the packet. This rule may also be deleted.

Each RPDB entry has additional attributes. F.e. each rule has a pointer to some routing table. NAT and masquerading rules have an attribute to select new IPaddress to translate/masquerade. Besides that, rules have some optional attributes, which routes have, namely realms. These values do not override thosecontained in the routing tables. They are only used if the route did not select any attributes.

The RPDB may contain rules of the following types:

unicast - the rule prescribes to return the route found in the routing table referenced by the rule.

blackhole - the rule prescribes to silently drop the packet.

unreachable - the rule prescribes to generate a 'Network is unreachable' error.

prohibit - the rule prescribes to generate 'Communication is administratively prohibited' error.

nat - the rule prescribes to translate the source address of the IP packet into some other value.

ip rule add - insert a new rule

ip rule delete - delete a rule

the type of this rule. The list of valid types was given in the previous subsection.
select the source prefix to match.
select the destination prefix to match.
select the incoming device to match. If the interface is loopback, the rule only matches packets originating from this host. This means that you may createseparate routing tables for forwarded and local packets and, hence, completely segregate them.
select the TOS value to match.
select the fwmark value to match.
the priority of this rule. Each rule should have an explicitly set unique priority value. The options preference and order are synonyms withpriority.
the routing table identifier to lookup if the rule selector matches. It is also possible to use lookup instead of table.
Realms to select if the rule matched and the routing table lookup succeeded. Realm TO is only used if the route did not select any realm.
The base of the IP address block to translate (for source addresses). The ADDRESS may be either the start of the block of NAT addresses (selected byNAT routes) or a local host address (or even zero). In the last case the router does not translate the packets, but masquerades them to this address. Usingmap-to instead of nat means the same thing.

Warning: Changes to the RPDB made with these commands do not become active immediately. It is assumed that after a script finishes a batch ofupdates, it flushes the routing cache with ip route flush cache.

ip rule flush - also dumps all the deleted rules.

This command has no arguments. The options list or lst are synonyms with show.

ip maddress - multicast addresses management

maddress objects are multicast addresses.

ip maddress show - list multicast addresses

ip maddress delete - delete a multicast address

the prefix selecting the destination multicast addresses to list.
the interface on which multicast packets are received.
the prefix selecting the IP source addresses of the multicast route.

ip tunnel - tunnel configuration

tunnel objects are tunnels, encapsulating packets in IP packets and then sending them over the IP infrastructure. The encapulating (or outer) addressfamily is specified by the -f option. The default is IPv4.

ip tunnel add - add a new tunnel

ip tunnel change - change an existing tunnel

ip tunnel delete - destroy a tunnel

select the tunnel device name.
set the tunnel mode. Available modes depend on the encapsulating address family.
Modes for IPv4 encapsulation available: ipip, sit, isatap and gre.
Modes for IPv6 encapsulation available: ip6ip6, ipip6 and any.
set the remote endpoint of the tunnel.
set the fixed local address for tunneled packets. It must be an address on another interface of this host.

set a fixed TTL N on tunneled packets. N is a number in the range 1--255. 0 is a special value meaning that packets inherit the TTL value. Thedefault value for IPv4 tunnels is: inherit. The default value for IPv6 tunnels is: 64.


set a fixed TOS (or traffic class in IPv6) T on tunneled packets. The default value is: inherit.
bind the tunnel to the device NAME so that tunneled packets will only be routed via this device and will not be able to escape to another device whenthe route to endpoint changes.
disable Path MTU Discovery on this tunnel. It is enabled by default. Note that a fixed ttl is incompatible with this option: tunnelling with a fixed ttlalways makes pmtu discovery.



( only GRE tunnels ) use keyed GRE with key K. K is either a number or an IP address-like dotted quad. The key parameter setsthe key to use in both directions. The ikey and okey parameters set different keys for input and output.

csum, icsum, ocsum
( only GRE tunnels ) generate/require checksums for tunneled packets. The ocsum flag calculates checksums for outgoing packets. Theicsum flag requires that all input packets have the correct checksum. The csum flag is equivalent to the combination icsum ocsum.
seq, iseq, oseq
( only GRE tunnels ) serialize packets. The oseq flag enables sequencing of outgoing packets. The iseq flag requires that all inputpackets are serialized. The seq flag is equivalent to the combination iseq oseq. It isn't work. Don't use it.
dscp inherit
( only IPv6 tunnels ) Inherit DS field between inner and outer header.
( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed encapsulation limit. Default is 4.
( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed flowlabel.

ip tunnel prl - potential router list (ISATAP only)

This command has no arguments.

ip monitor and rtmon - state monitoring

The ip utility can monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes continuously. This option has a slightly different format. Namely, themonitor command is the first in the command line and then the object list follows:

ip monitor [ allLISTofOBJECTS ]

OBJECT-LIST is the list of object types that we want to monitor. It may contain link, address and route. If no fileargument is given, ip opens RTNETLINK, listens on it and dumps state changes in the format described in previous sections.

If a file name is given, it does not listen on RTNETLINK, but opens the file containing RTNETLINK messages saved in binary format and dumps them. Such ahistory file can be generated with the rtmon utility. This utility has a command line syntax similar to ip monitor. Ideally, rtmon shouldbe started before the first network configuration command is issued. F.e. if you insert:

rtmon file /var/log/rtmon.log
in a startup script, you will be able to view the full history later.

Certainly, it is possible to start rtmon at any time. It prepends the history with the state snapshot dumped at the moment ofstarting.

ip xfrm - setting xfrm

xfrm is an IP framework, which can transform format of the datagrams,
i.e. encrypt the packets with some algorithm. xfrm policy and xfrm state are associated through templates TMPL_LIST. This framework is used as a part ofIPsec protocol.

ip xfrm state add - add new state into xfrm

ip xfrm state update - update existing xfrm state

ip xfrm state allocspi - allocate SPI value


is set as default to transport, but it could be set to tunnel,ro or beet.

contains one or more flags.

could be set to noecn, decap-dscp or wildrecv.


encapsulation is set to encapsulation type ENCAP-TYPE, source port SPORT, destination port DPORT and OADDR.

could be set to espinudp or espinudp-nonike.
contains one or more algorithms ALGO which depend on the type of algorithm set by ALGO_TYPE. It can be used these algoritms enc,auth or comp.

ip xfrm policy add - add a new policy

ip xfrm policy update - update an existing policy

ip xfrm policy delete - delete existing policy

ip xfrm policy get - get existing policy

ip xfrm policy deleteall - delete all existing xfrm policy

ip xfrm policy list - print out the list of xfrm policy

ip xfrm policy flush - flush policies

It can be flush all policies or only those specified with ptype.
directory could be one of these: inp, out or fwd.
selects for which addresses will be set up the policy. The selector is defined by source and destination address.

is defined by source port sport, destination port dport, type as number and code also number.

specify network device.
the number of indexed policy.
type is set as default on main, could be switch on sub.
is set as default on allow. It could be switch on block.
priority is a number. Default priority is set on zero.

Clear Manual Ip Address Entries From A Macbook Air

limits are set in seconds, bytes or numbers of packets.
template list is based on ID, mode, reqid and level.

is specified by source address, destination address, proto and value of spi.

values: esp, ah, comp, route2 or hao.

is set as default on transport, but it could be set on tunnel or beet.


is set as default on required and the other choice is use.


is specified by sport, dport, type and code (NUMBER).

ip xfrm monitor - is used for listing all objects or defined group of them.

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