Detergent Soap Making Formula Pdf

Download File PDF Liquid Laundry Detergent Formulations Liquid Laundry Detergent Formulations As recognized, adventure as capably as experience just about lesson, amusement, as skillfully as concurrence can be gotten by just checking out a book liquid laundry detergent formulations moreover it is not directly done, you could agree to even more on this life, with reference to the world.

Carboxylic acids and salts having alkyl chains longer than eight carbons exhibit unusual behavior in water due to the presence of both hydrophilic (CO2) and hydrophobic (alkyl) regions in the same molecule. Such molecules are termed amphiphilic (Gk. amphi = both) or amphipathic. Fatty acids made up of ten or more carbon atoms are nearly insoluble in water, and because of their lower density, float on the surface when mixed with water. Unlike paraffin or other alkanes, which tend to puddle on the waters surface, these fatty acids spread evenly over an extended water surface, eventually forming a monomolecular layer in which the polar carboxyl groups are hydrogen bonded at the water interface, and the hydrocarbon chains are aligned together away from the water. This behavior is illustrated in the diagram on the right. Substances that accumulate at water surfaces and change the surface properties are called surfactants.

Soaps And Detergents Pdf


Pdf

But the production technology of detergents have been changed involving high technique in process control, more skilled personnel and Ariel washing powder and laundry liquid - P&G Washing Powder Making Formula, Wholesale Various High Quality Washing PDF File (.pdf), Text File. 29 Oct 2017 Detergent cake formula pdf file - escribio en Pokkazm. But the production technology of detergents have been changed involving high technique in process control, more skilled personnel and Ariel washing powder and laundry liquid - P&G Washing Powder Making Formula, Wholesale Various High Quality Washing PDF File (.pdf), Text File. 29 Oct 2017 Detergent cake formula pdf file - escribio en Pokkazm. Detergent Soap Making Formula Pdf FileHistorically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hardthese are used exclusively in greases. Effects of fats. Soaps are derivatives of fatty acids.

Alkali metal salts of fatty acids are more soluble in water than the acids themselves, and the amphiphilic character of these substances also make them strong surfactants. The most common examples of such compounds are soaps and detergents, four of which are shown below. Note that each of these molecules has a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain, the 'tail', and a polar (often ionic) 'head group'. The use of such compounds as cleaning agents is facilitated by their surfactant character, which lowers the surface tension of water, allowing it to penetrate and wet a variety of materials.

Very small amounts of these surfactants dissolve in water to give a random dispersion of solute molecules. However, when the concentration is increased an interesting change occurs. The surfactant molecules reversibly assemble into polymolecular aggregates called micelles. By gathering the hydrophobic chains together in the center of the micelle, disruption of the hydrogen bonded structure of liquid water is minimized, and the polar head groups extend into the surrounding water where they participate in hydrogen bonding. These micelles are often spherical in shape, but may also assume cylindrical and branched forms, as illustrated on the right. Here the polar head group is designated by a blue circle, and the nonpolar tail is a zig-zag black line.


The oldest amphiphilic cleaning agent known to humans is soap. Soap is manufactured by the base-catalyzed hydrolysis (saponification) of animal fat. Before sodium hydroxide was commercially available, a boiling solution of potassium carbonate leached from wood ashes was used. Soft potassium soaps were then converted to the harder sodium soaps by washing with salt solution. The importance of soap to human civilization is documented by history, but some problems associated with its use have been recognized. One of these is caused by the weak acidity (pKa ca. 4.9) of the fatty acids. Solutions of alkali metal soaps are slightly alkaline (pH 8 to 9) due to hydrolysis. If the pH of a soap solution is lowered by acidic contaminants, insoluble fatty acids precipitate and form a scum. A second problem is caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium salts in the water supply (hard water). These divalent cations cause aggregation of the micelles, which then deposit as a dirty scum.

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These problems have been alleviated by the development of synthetic amphiphiles called detergents (or syndets). By using a much stronger acid for the polar head group, water solutions of the amphiphile are less sensitive to pH changes. Also the sulfonate functions used for virtually all anionic detergents confer greater solubility on micelles incorporating the alkaline earth cations found in hard water. Variations on the amphiphile theme have led to the development of other classes, such as the cationic and nonionic detergents shown above. Cationic detergents often exhibit germicidal properties, and their ability to change surface pH has made them useful as fabric softeners and hair conditioners. These versatile chemical 'tools' have dramatically transformed the household and personal care cleaning product markets over the past fifty years.

Contributors

  • William Reusch, Professor Emeritus (Michigan State U.), Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry

These are the names of the formulas:
1. Dishwashing detergent.
2. Pine Gel.
3. Black Dip.
4. Body and shower gel.

5. Carpet shampoo.
6. Deo Blocks.
7. Toilet Bowl Cleaner.
8. Fabric Softener.

9. Waterless hand Cleaner.
10. Stainless steel Cleaner.
11. Powder Carpet Cleaner
12. Glass rinse aid.
13. Automatic Dishwashing detergent.
14. De-Ruster.
15. Bubble Bath.
16. Laundry Starch.
17. General Purpose Cleaner.
18. Brick and stone cleaner.
19. Pressure cleaner.
20. Degreaser.
21. Household Ammonia.
22. 'Handy Andy' type cleaner.
23. Aluminium cleaner and brightener.
24. Blue disinfectant for toilets.
25. Car shampoo.
26. Engine Cleaner.
27. Hair shampoo.
28. Quality 'Handy Andy' type cleaner.
29. Vinyl and Rubber protection fluid.
30. Metal polish for silver.
31. Radiator anti-freeze and anti-rust.
32. Mechanics soap paste and hand cleaner.
33. Anti-bacterial hand cleaner.
34. Children’s bubbles.
35. Algae Control.

36. Leather polish.
37. Protective barrier cream.
38. Cleansing cold cream.
39. Nail polish remover.
40. Drain Cleaner.
41. Household Bleach.
42. Dispenser liquid hand soap.
43. Window Cleaner.
44. Home Disinfectant.
45. Tile Cleaner.
46. Air Freshener.
47. Spot Laundry Cleaner.
48. Non scratch cleaner.
49. Oven Cleaner.
50. Liquid carpet shampoo.
Contents of the HOUSE AND HOME PRODUCTION MANUAL:
1. Introduction to chemical production.
2. Health and Safety Measures: Making sure that you handle chemicals correctly.
3. Labelling requirements: How to label the product to conform to regulations if you want to sell your products to supermarkets and shops.
4. Quality control: Making sure that your product is of the best quality.
5. Sample tests: Controlling the strength of the product when making economy products and luxury super strength products for the more affluent.
6. Tables of values: How much is perfect.
7. List of suppliers of raw materials to make the products.
8. Correct storage to ensure strength and freshness.
9. Working with percentages.
10. Preservatives and how to use them.
11. PH levels.
12. The use of perfumes and dyes.
13. How to thicken the products.

What Is Non Detergent Soap

Pdf

Soap Vs Detergent

Contents of the MARKETING MANUAL:
1. Branding your products so that only you sell products under a name that you choose.
2. Mark-ups and costing. What to sell your product for. How to determine the right price.
3. Market research: what do people need most; what are people actually buying and why.
4. Packaging that entice people to purchase your product.
5. How to source finance for your business.
6. Structuring your business.
7. Registering your business.
8. Other legal requirements.
9. Free Advertising and other economical ways to advertise.
10. Market penetration: How, where, what?
11. Economy versus quality: Cheap versus expensive.
12. Displaying your product correctly.
13. Choosing a suitable name for all your products and the business.
14. Your business plan.
15. How to keep your customers loyal.
16. The right location if you are opening a shop.
17. Tendering information.
18. The tax man, VAT, U.I.F. etc.
The Cost of the Detergent Manufacturing TrainingisR5100 and includes a manual with all the above formulations.
If you purchase the Home Study the cost is R3000.
*Please Note that you need to reside in South Africa to purchase the Home Study Course Package.

Click Hereto Apply for the Detergent Manufacturing Course OR Purchase the Home Study Course Package.