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Review this information for system privileges required for Oracle Database or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) administration.

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As an administrator, you often perform special operations such as shutting down or starting up a database, or configuring storage. Because only an administrator responsible for these administration decisions must perform these operations, system privileges for Oracle Database or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) administration require a secure authentication scheme.

Membership in special operating system groups enables administrators to authenticate to Oracle Database or Oracle ASM through the operating system rather than with a user name and password. This is known as operating system authentication. Each Oracle Database in a cluster can have its own operating system privileges groups, so that operating system authentication can be separated for each Oracle Database on a cluster. Because there can be only one Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation on a cluster, there can be only one set of operating system privileges groups for Oracle ASM.

During installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, you provide the group names of operating system groups. These operating system groups are designated with the logical role of granting operating system group authentication for administration system privilege for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM.

In an Oracle RAC cluster, the group ID number (GID) for system privileges groups must be identical on each cluster member node. One operating system group can be designated the logical group whose members are granted all system privileges for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM, including the OINSTALL system privileges for installation owners. You can also delegate logical system privileges to two or more actual operating system groups. Oracle recommends that you designate separate operating system groups for each logical system privilege. This enables you to grant one or more subsets of administrator system privileges to database administrators. These database administrators can then perform standard database administration tasks without requiring the SYSDBA system privileges.

System privileges groups are listed in the following table:

Table 6-1 Role-Allocated Oracle System Privileges Operating System Groups

Logical Operating System Group NameDefault Actual UNIX or Linux Group NameSystem Privileges Authenticated By Group Membership

OINSTALL

oinstall

Install system privileges for installation owners, which includes privileges to write to the central oraInventory directory for each server, and other privileges granted to Oracle binary installation owner users.

OSDBA

dba

SYSDBA system privileges for an Oracle Database, which includes all system privileges for the database.

OSOPER

oper

SYSOPER startup and shutdown system privileges for an Oracle Database.

OSBACKUPDBA

backupdba

SYSBACKUP backup and recovery system privileges for an Oracle Database.

OSDGDBA

dgdba

SYSDG system privileges to administer and monitor Oracle Data Guard.

OSKMDBA

kmdba

SYSKM system privileges for encryption key management for applications such as Oracle Wallet Manager.

OSASM

asmadmin

SYSASM system privileges for Oracle ASM on a cluster, which includes all system privileges for Oracle ASM storage.

OSOPER for ASM

asmoper

SYSOPER startup and shutdown system privileges for Oracle ASM on the cluster.

OSDBA for ASM

asmdba

SYSDBA for ASM system privileges to obtain read and write access to files managed by Oracle ASM. All Oracle Database software owners must be a member of this group.

OSRACDBA

racdba

SYSRAC privileges to perform day to day administration of Oracle databases on an Oracle RAC cluster. All Oracle Database software owners must be a member of this group.

See Also:

  • Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about operating system groups and Oracle Database system privileges

  • Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about operating system groups and Oracle ASM system privileges

Parent topic:Understanding the Oracle RAC Installed Configuration

  • Operating System Tutorial
  • OS - Exams Questions with Answers
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An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

Some popular Operating Systems include Linux Operating System, Windows Operating System, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc.

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Definition

An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.

Following are some of important functions of an operating System.

  • Memory Management
  • Processor Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Control over system performance
  • Job accounting
  • Error detecting aids
  • Coordination between other software and users

Memory Management

Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address.

Main memory provides a fast storage that can be accessed directly by the CPU. For a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. An Operating System does the following activities for memory management −

  • Keeps tracks of primary memory, i.e., what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use.

  • In multiprogramming, the OS decides which process will get memory when and how much.

  • Allocates the memory when a process requests it to do so.

  • De-allocates the memory when a process no longer needs it or has been terminated.

Processor Management

In multiprogramming environment, the OS decides which process gets the processor when and for how much time. This function is called process scheduling. An Operating System does the following activities for processor management −

  • Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. The program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller.

  • Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process.

  • De-allocates processor when a process is no longer required.

Device Management

An Operating System manages device communication via their respective drivers. It does the following activities for device management −

  • Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. Recommended apps for macbook pro.

  • Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time.

  • Allocates the device in the efficient way.

  • De-allocates devices.

File Management

A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions.

An Operating System does the following activities for file management −

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  • Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc. The collective facilities are often known as file system.

  • Decides who gets the resources.

  • Allocates the resources.

  • De-allocates the resources.

Other Important Activities

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Following are some of the important activities that an Operating System performs −

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  • Security − By means of password and similar other techniques, it prevents unauthorized access to programs and data.

  • Control over system performance − Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system.

  • Job accounting − Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users.

  • Error detecting aids − Production of dumps, traces, error messages, and other debugging and error detecting aids.

  • Coordination between other softwares and users − Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.