Struts 2 Downloaddigitalfront

  1. Struts 2 Download
  2. Struts 1.2
  3. Front Strut Assembly
  4. Front Struts Replacement Cost


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Structs, an open-source Apache project at, is a MVC (Model-View-Controller) framework for creating user interfaces for Java web application. Struts is an extension of Java Servlets and JSP. Struts is in direct competition with JSF (Java Server Faces).

[TODO] struts functions, comparison of struts and JSF.

Develop and Deploy Struts Application on Tomcat

Before writing our first Struts program, I shall assume that you have installed and configured Tomcat server. I shall also assume that Tomcat is running on port 8080 and denote the Tomcat's installed directory as $CATALINA_HOME. (Otherwise, read 'How to install Tomcat'.)

I also assume that you understand basic Java server-side technologies such as Java Servlets, JSP (JavaServer Pages), and Java Web Applications.

Download the Struts Runtime Libraries

  1. Download the Struts runtime libraries from Select 'Downloads' ⇒ 'Releases' ⇒ Select the latest General Availability (GA) release, e.g., 'Struts' ⇒ 'Full Distribution' ⇒ ''.
  2. Unzip.
  3. The runtime libraries are kept in sub-directory 'lib', which includes 71 jar-files. To deploy Struts application in Tomcat, these libraries must be available to Tomcat. You could copy the selected jar-files into Tomccat's 'lib' directory (i.e., $CATALINA_HOMElib), which will be available to all the web applications. You could also place the jar-files into a specific web context's 'lib' directory, which will be available to only the particular web application.

Deploy and Run the Sample Applications Provided

The downloaded Struts package contains a few ready-to-deploy sample applications in directory 'apps', in the form of war-files. In particular, a 'blank' application template for which you can use to start writing your own codes. War-file (Web Application Archive) uses ZIP algorithm to compress and group files. You can extract the contents of war-file using WINZIP, WINRAR, or any other ZIP programs.

To deploy a sample application, simply copy the war-file into Tomcat's 'webapps' directory ($CATALINA_HOMEwebapps). Let's copy the 'blank' sample application struts2-blank- into Tomcat's 'webapps'. Start your Tomcat. The war-file will be unzipped and deployed automatically. Observer the following message in the Tomcat's console:

The following directories are extracted from the war-file under 'webapps':

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A Java web application has a standard directory for storing various type of files:

  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-': This directory is known as context root of the web application 'struts2-blank-', which keeps the 'html', 'jsp' files accessible by the users. In this example, the home page 'index.html'.
  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-': This directory is hidden from user and keeps the configuration files. You keep the configuration file in this directory and program codes in its sub-directories. In this example, it contains a configuration file 'web.xml' for configuring this web application.
  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-': Keep the java program source files (optional).
  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-': Keep the java classes.
  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-': keep the runtime libraries (jar-files) for this application.
  • '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappsstruts2-blank-':

Start Tomcat. Observe these message in the Tomcat's console:

To access the sample struts application, issue URL http://loaclhost:8080/struts2-blank- from a web browser. The home page 'index.html' redirect to 'exampleHelloworld.jsp'. Browse thru the source code of these pages.

Try http://loaclhost:8080/struts2-blank-, and browse thru the source codes for these pages in 'example' sub-directory.

First Example: Hello-world

Let's write a Hello-world Struts application.

Define a new Web Context 'hellostructs2' in Tomcat
  • First of all, define a new web context (web application) called 'hellostruts2' in Tomcat for our Struts Hello-world application, by creating the standard directory structure for the web context (as shown in the figure below). Create a directory called 'hellostruts2', under the Tomcat's webapps directory ($CATALINA_HOMEwebapps). Create a sub-directory 'WEB-INF' under 'hellostruts2'. Create sub-directories: 'classes', 'lib' and 'src' under 'WEB-INF'. Take note that the directory names are case-sensitive.
  • Copy the struts runtime jar-file into 'lib': commons-fileupload-1.2.1.jar, commons-io-1.3.2.jar, freemarker-2.3.15.jar, ognl-2.7.3.jar, struts2-core-, xwork-core-2.1.6.jar.
Configure 'hellostruts2' - 'web.xml' and 'struts.xml'

Create the following web configuration file 'web.xml'. Save in '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappshellostruts2WEB-INF'. The <filter> tag sets up the struts's dispatcher. The <filter-mapping> maps URL pattern '/*' (all requests under the root) to struts.

Create the following configuration file for struts 'struts.xml'. Save in '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappshellostruts2WEB-INFclasses'. An action called HelloWorld is declared, which is mapped to hello.HelloWorld class. If the action returns a string 'Success', invoke '/response.jsp'.

Write the Hello-world Struts 2 Application

'input.jsp': save under the context root '$CATALINA_HOMEwebappshellostruts2'. This page is used to produce the following form:

  • The taglib directive declares the struts 2 tags, with prefix 's'.
  • The <s:form> defines a HTML form, with processing action of 'HelloWorld'. The 'HelloWorld' action is mapped to 'hello.HelloWorld' class (in 'struts.xml').
  • The <s:textfield> define a text field element. The value will be captured in a field 'name' of the 'hello.HelloWorld' class.

Class 'hello.HelloWorld': save as ''

  • To compile this Java source code using JDK, change the current directory to 'hellostruts2WEB-INF', and use -d option to set the output directory:
  • We need to define a execute() method, which returns a string. From 'struts.xml', if the return result is 'Success', forward to 'response.jsp'.
  • Two properties, name and message, are defined together with the public getters and setters.

'response.jsp': saved as 'hellostruts2response.jsp'. This page accesses the 'message' property of the class 'hello.HelloWorld', and has a 'Back' button to return to '/input.jsp'.

Start Tomcat

Start the Tomcat server. Check for the following messages to confirm that web context 'hellostruts2' has been started.

Run the Struts Application

Struts 2 Download

Front struts replacement cost

Struts 1.2

Issue URL:

Try 'View Source' the see the output produced by 'input.jsp' and 'response.jsp'.

Front Strut Assembly


  • Apache Tomcat @
  • Struts @
  • JavaServer Pages (JSP) Home Page @, and Developer Site @

Front Struts Replacement Cost

Latest version tested: JDK 1.6, Tomcat 6.0.26, Struts
Last modified: May 1, 2010